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Revised March 5, 2016

List of Tanganyika cichlids


Cichlid fishes in the East Africa form a huge monophyletic group. This group is called EAR and includes various species from lakes Tanganyika (LT), Victoria (LV) and Malawi (LM). The number of species in the EAR is still unknown, but more than 1000 species will be included. These species are devided into several lineages (tribes), and most of these lineages (tribes) are endemic to LT. Thus, an ancestral species of the EAR may have deversified into several ancestral species of these lineges (tribes) in LT, and then the ancestral species of these lineages (tribes) were derersified into various species. At the second species diversification, some species may have colonised other places (e.g. LV and LM) and diversified there. LT was fomed about 10 million years ago. This may indicate that one ancestral species was diversified into more than 1000 species during 10 million years.

Some LT species are not included in the EAR. Probably, these species are recently colonised the lake after the diversification of EAR species.

EAR tribes LT tribes out of EAR
1.Bathybatini 13.Coptodonini
2.Benthochromini 14.Oreochromini
3.Boulengerochromini 15.Tylochromini
4.Cyphotilapiini
5.Cyprichromini
6.Ectodini
7.Eretmodini
8.Haplochromini
9.Lamprologini
10.Limnochromini
11.Perissodini
12.Tropheini




EAR
1. Bathybatini Poll, 1986

Distribution: Endemic to Lake Tanganyika.
Number of currently valid species: 17 species belonging to 3 genera.
Brooding type: Mouth brooders.
Note: Three tribes are sometimes recognized for the three genera; namely, Bathybatini, Hemibatini, and Trematocarini (Koblmüller et al., 2008, Hydrobiologia 615:5-20).

Bathybates fasciatus Boulenger, 1901
Bathybates ferox Boulenger, 1898
Bathybates graueri Steindachner, 1911
Bathybates horni Steindachner, 1911
Bathybates leo Poll, 1956
Bathybates minor Boulenger, 1906
Bathybates vittatus Boulenger, 1914
Hemibates stenosoma (Boulenger, 1901)
Trematocara caparti Poll, 1948
Trematocara kufferathi Poll, 1948
Trematocara macrostoma Poll, 1952
Trematocara marginatum Boulenger, 1899
Trematocara nigrifrons Boulenger, 1906
Trematocara stigmaticum Poll, 1943
Trematocara unimaculatum Boulenger, 1901
Trematocara variabile Poll, 1952
Trematocara zebra DeVos, Nshombo and Thys van den Audenaerde, 1996

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EAR
2. Benthochromini Takahashi, 2003

Distribution: Endemic to Lake Tanganyika.
Number of currently valid species: 3 species belonging to 1 genus.
Brooding type: Mouth brooder.
Note: Main habitats are deeper than 30 m depth.

Benthochromis melanoides (Poll, 1984)
Benthochromis tricoti (Poll, 1948)
Benthochromis horii Takahashi, 2008

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EAR
3. Boulengerochromini Takahashi, 2003

Distribution: Endemic to Lake Tanganyika.
Number of currently valid species: 1 species belonging to 1 genus.
Brooding type: Substrate borooder.
Note: Females spawn eggs on flat surfaces of middle-sized rocks (tens centimeter in the longest diameter), and the eggs hach out after three days. Then, males (and also females?) carry the fry to holes on the ground by mouths. Pairs take care of eggs and fry for a long time. B. microlepis grows over 50 cm in standard length (a distance between the anterior tip of the upper jaw and the base of the caudal fin), being the largest of the Lake Tanganyika cichlids.

Boulengerochromis microlepis (Boulenger, 1899)

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EAR
4. Cyphotilapiini Salzburger, Meyer, Baric, Verheyen and Sturmbauer, 2002

Distribution: Endemic to Lake Tanganyika.
Number of currently valid species: 3 species belonging to 2 genus.
Brooding type: Mouth brooders.
Note: Main habitats of these species are waters deer than 20 m.

Cyphotilapia frontosa (Boulenger, 1906)
Cyphotilapia gibberosa Takahashi and Nakaya, 2003
Trematochromis benthicola (Matthes, 1962)

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EAR
5. Cyprichromini Poll, 1986

Distribution: Endemic to Lake Tanganyika.
Number of currently valid species: 7 species belonging to 2 genera.
Brooding type: Mouth brooders.
Node: These species make mixed-species schools a few meter above rocky bottoms.

Cyprichromis coloratus Takahashi and Hori, 2006
Cyprichromis leptosoma (Boulenger, 1898)
Cyprichromis microlepidotus (Poll, 1956)
Cyprichromis pavo Büscher, 1994
Cyprichromis zonatus Takahashi, Hori and Nakaya, 2002
Paracyprichromis brieni (Poll, 1981)
Paracyprichromis nigripinnis (Boulenger, 1901)

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EAR
6. Ectodini Poll, 1986

Distribution: Endemic to Lake Tanganyika.
Number of currently valid species: 33 species belonging to 10 genera.
Brooding type: Mouth brooders.
Note: Cyathopharynx includes at least two species: C. furcifer and the other species. The scientific name for the latter species is still in confusion (Takahashi and Hori, 2012, Int J Evol Biol 2012:article ID 980879). The classification of genera in this tribe is morphologically defined but partly contradicts molecular phylogenies (Koblmüller et al., 2004, J Mol Evol 58:71-96).

Aulonocranus dewindti (Boulenger, 1899)
Callochromis macrops (Boulenger, 1898)
Callochromis melanostigma (Boulenger, 1898)
Callochromis pleurospilus (Boulenger, 1906)
Cardiopharynx schoutedeni Poll, 1942
Cunningtonia longiventralis Boulenger, 1906
Cyathopharynx furcifer (Boulenger, 1898)
Ectodus descampsi Boulenger, 1898
Grammatotria lemairii Boulenger, 1899
Lestradea perspicax Poll, 1943
Lestradea stappersii (Poll, 1943)
Ophthalmotilapia boops (Boulenger, 1901)
Ophthalmotilapia heterodonta (Poll and Matthes, 1962)
Ophthalmotilapia nasuta (Poll and Matthes, 1962)
Ophthalmotilapia ventralis (Boulenger, 1898)
Xenotilapia albini (Steindachner, 1909) ?
Xenotilapia bathyphila Poll, 1956
Xenotilapia boulengeri (Poll, 1942)
Xenotilapia burtoni Poll, 1951
Xenotilapia caudafasciata Poll, 1951
Xenotilapia flavipinnis Poll, 1985
Xenotilapia leptura (Boulenger, 1901)
Xenotilapia longispinis Poll, 1951
Xenotilapia melanogenys (Boulenger, 1898)
Xenotilapia nasus DeVos, Risch and Thys van den Audenaerde, 1995
Xenotilapia nigrolabiata Poll, 1951
Xenotilapia ochrogenys (Boulenger, 1914)
Xenotilapia ornatipinnis Boulenger, 1901
Xenotilapia papilio Büscher, 1990
Xenotilapia rotundiventralis Takahashi, Yanagisawa and Nakaya, 1997
Xenotilapia sima Boulenger, 1899
Xenotilapia spiloptera Poll and Stewart, 1975
Xenotilapia tenuidentata (Poll, 1951)

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EAR
7. Eretmodini Poll, 1986

Distribution: Endemic to Lake Tanganyika.
Number of currently valid species: 5 species endemic to 3 genera.
Brooding type: Mouth brooders.
Note: The genera and species of this tribe are morphologically delimited, but the classification of this tribe partly contradicts molecular phylogenies (Rüber et al., 1999, Proc Nat Acad Sci USA 96:10230-10235)。

Eretmodus cyanostictus Boulenger, 1989
Eretmodus marksmithi Burgess, 2012
Spathodus erythrodon Boulenger, 1900
Spathodus marlieri Poll, 1950
Tanganicodus irsacae Poll, 1950

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EAR
8. Haplochromini Trewavas, 1983

Distribution: Wide distribution throughout the East Africa.
Number of currently valid species: Unknown.
Brooding type: Mouth brooders.
Note: Hundreds of species exist in Lakes Malawi and Victoria, but classification for these fishes are still in confusion. In Lake Tanganyika, only two species are found at mouths of rivers flowing into the lake. Some researcher insists that this tribe should include the tribe Tropheini, which is endemic to Lake Tanganyika (Koblmüller et al., 2008, Hydrobiologia 615:5-20).

Astatotilapia burtoni (Günther, 1893)
Astatotilapia stappersii Poll, 1943

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EAR
9. Lamprologini Poll, 1986

Distribution: Lake Tanganyika, Congo River, Malagarasi River.
Number of currently valid species: 95 species belonging to 8 genera.
Brooding type: Substrate brooders using, for example, spaces between rockes and within empty snail shells.
Note: Out of the 95 valid species, 86 species are endemic to Lake Tanganyika (see the list below), while nine inhabit the Congo River and one the Malagarasi River. The generic classification of these species is defined based on morphological features, but molecular phylogenetics do not support the monophylies of some genera (Sturmbauer et al., 1994, Mol Biol Evol 11:691-703; Schelly et al., 2006, Mol Phylogen Evol 38:426-438; Day et al., 2007, Mol Phylogen Evol 45:629-642; Sturmbauer et al., 2010, Mol Phylogen Evol 57:266-284).

Altolamprologus calvus (Poll, 1978)
Altolamprologus compressiceps (Boulenger, 1898)
Chalinochromis brichardi Poll, 1974
Chalinochromis cyanophleps Kullander, Karlsson, Karlsson and Korén, 2014
Chalinochromis popelini Boulenger, 1989
Julidochromis dickfeldi Staeck, 1975
Julidochromis marksmithi Burgess, 2014
Julidochromis marlieri Poll, 1956
Julidochromis ornatus Boulenger, 1898
Julidochromis regani Poll, 1942
Julidochromis transcriptus Matthes, 1958
Lamprologus callipterus Boulenger, 1906
Lamprologus finalimus Nichols and LaMonte, 1931
Lamprologus kungweensis Poll, 1956
Lamprologus laparogramma Bills and Ribbink, 1997
Lamprologus lemairii Boulenger, 1899
Lamprologus meleagris Boulenger, 1991
Lamprologus ocellatus (Steindachner, 1909)
Lamprologus ornatipinnis Poll, 1949
Lamprologus signatus Poll, 1952
Lamprologus speciosus Büscher, 1991
Lepidiolamprologus attenuatus (Steindachner, 1909)
Lepidiolamprologus cunningtoni (Boulenger, 1906)
Lepidiolamprologus elongatus (Boulenger, 1898)
Lepidiolamprologus kamambae Kullander, Karlsson and Karlsson, 2012
Lepidiolamprologus kendalli (Poll and Stewart, 1977)
Lepidiolamprologus nkambae (Staeck, 1978)
Lepidiolamprologus profundicola (Poll, 1949)
Lepidiolamprologus mimicus Schelly, Takahashi, Bills and Hori, 2007
Neolamprologus bifasciatus Büscher, 1993
Neolamprologus boulengeri (Steindachner, 1909)
Neolamprologus brevis (Boulenger, 1899)
Neolamprologus brichardi (Poll, 1974)
Neolamprologus buescheri (Staeck, 1983)
Neolamprologus cancellatus Aibara, Takahashi and Nakaya, 2005
Neolamprologus caudopunctatus (Poll, 1978)
Neolamprologus chitamwebwai Verburg and Bills, 2007
Neolamprologus christyi (Trewavas and Poll, 1952)
Neolamprologus crassus (Brichard, 1989)
Neolamprologus cylindricus Staeck and Seegers, 1986
Neolamprologus devosi Schelly, Stiassny and Seegers, 2003
Neolamprologus falcicula (Brichard, 1989)
Neolamprologus fasciatus (Boulenger, 1898)
Neolamprologus furcifer (Boulenger, 1898)
Neolamprologus gracilis (Brichard, 1989)
Neolamprologus hecqui (Boulenger, 1899)
Neolamprologus helianthus Büscher, 1997
Neolamprologus leleupi (Poll, 1956)
Neolamprologus leloupi (Poll, 1948)
Neolamprologus longicaudatus Nakaya and Gashagaza, 1995
Neolamprologus longior (Staeck, 1980)
Neolamprologus marunguensis Büscher, 1989
Neolamprologus meeli (Poll, 1948)
Neolamprologus modestus (Boulenger, 1898)
Neolamprologus mondabu (Boulenger, 1906)
Neolamprologus multifasciatus (Boulenger, 1906)
Neolamprologus mustax (Poll, 1978)
Neolamprologus niger (Poll, 1956)
Neolamprologus nigriventris Büscher, 1992
Neolamprologus obscurus (Poll, 1978)
Neolamprologus olivaceous (Brichard, 1989)
Neolamprologus pectoralis Büscher, 1991
Neolamprologus petricola (Poll, 1949)
Neolamprologus pleuromaculatus (Trewavas and Poll, 1952)
Neolamprologus prochilus (Bailey and Stewart, 1977)
Neolamprologus pulcher (Trewavas and Poll, 1952)
Neolamprologus savoryi (Poll, 1949)
Neolamprologus schreyeni (Poll, 1974)
Neolamprologus sexfasciatus (Trewavas and Poll, 1952)
Neolamprologus similis Büscher, 1992
Neolamprologus splendens (Brichard, 1989)
Neolamprologus tetracanthus (Boulenger, 1899)
Neolamprologus timidus Kullander, Norén, Karlsson and Karlsson, 2014
Neolamprologus toae (Poll, 1949)
Neolamprologus tretocephalus (Boulenger, 1899)
Neolamprologus variostigma Büscher, 1995
Neolamprologus ventralis Büscher, 1995
Neolamprologus walteri Verburg and Bills, 2007
Neolamprologus wauthioni (Poll, 1949)
Telmatochromis bifrenatus Myers, 1936
Telmatochromis brathygnathus Hanssens and Snoeks, 2003
Telmatochromis brichardi Louisy, 1989
Telmatochromis dhonti (Boulenger, 1919)
Telmatochromis temporalis Boulenger, 1898
Telmatochromis vittatus Boulenger, 1898
Variabilichromis moorii (Boulenger, 1898)

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EAR
10. Limnochromini Poll, 1986

Distribution: Endemic to Lake Tanganyika.
Number of currently valid species: 10 species belonging to 7 genera.
Brooding type: Mouth brooders.
Note: All species are usually found waters deeper than 30 m depth.

Baileychromis centropomoides (Bailey and Stewart, 1977)
Gnathochromis permaxillaris (David, 1936)
Greenwoodochromis abeelei (Poll, 1949)
Greenwoodochromis bellcrossi (Poll, 1976)
Greenwoodochromis christyi (Trewavas, 1953)
Greenwoodochromis staneri (Poll, 1949)
Limnochromis auritus (Boulenger, 1901)
Reganochromis calliurus (Boulenger, 1901)
Tangachromis dhanisi (Poll, 1949)
Triglachromis otostigma (Regan, 1920)

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EAR
11. Perissodini Poll, 1986

Distribution: Endemic to Lake Tanganyika.
Number of currently valid species: 9 species belonging to 4 genera.
Brooding type: Mouth brooders.
Note: Some species of this tribe are scale-eater. The classification of the genera is morphologically defined (Liem and Stewart, 1976, Mull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 147:319-350), but some molecular evidence does't support the monophyly of each genus (Koblmüller et al., 2007, Mol. Phylogen. Evol. 44:1295-1305; Takahashi R et al., 2007, BMC Evol Biol 7:195).

Haplotaxodon microlepis Boulenger, 1906
Haplotaxodon trifasciatus Takahashi and Nakaya, 1999
Perissodus eccentricus Liem and Stewart, 1976
Perissodus microlepis Boulenger, 1898
Plecodus elaviae Poll, 1949
Plecodus multidentatus Poll, 1952
Plecodus paradoxus Boulenger, 1898
Plecodus straeleni Poll, 1948
Xenochromis hecqui Boulenger, 1899

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EAR
12. Tropheini Poll, 1986

Distribution: Endemic to Lake Tanganyika.
Number of currently valid species: 25 species belonging to 7 genera.
Brooding type: Mouth brooders.
Note: The generic allocation for C. horei and P. pfefferi has not been resolved. In the list below, the genera for these species are tentatively shown by the genera when these species were described. The other species are classifired into seven genera, but this classification is not supported by molecular phylogenetic evidence (Sturmbauer et al., 2003, Hydrobiologia 500:51-64; Koblmüller et al., 2010, Mol Phylogen Evol 55:318-334). Some say that this tribe should be included in the tribe Haplochromini (Koblmüller et al., 2008, Hydrobiologia 615:5-20).

Chromis horei Günther, 1893
Interochromis loocki (Poll, 1949)
Limnotilapia dardennii (Boulenger, 1899)
Lobochilotes labiatus (Boulenger, 1898)
Paratilapia pfefferi Boulenger, 1898
Petrochromis famula Matthes and Trewavas, 1960
Petrochromis fasciolatus Boulenger, 1914
Petrochromis horii Takahashi and Koblmüller, 2014
Petrochromis macrognathus Yamaoka, 1983
Petrochromis orthognathus Matthes, 1959
Petrochromis polyodon Boulenger, 1898
Petrochromis trewavasae trewavasae Poll, 1948
Petrochromis trewavasae ephippium Brichard, 1989
Pseudosimochromis curvifrons (Poll, 1942)
Simochromis babaulti Pellegrin, 1927
Simochromis diagramma (Günther, 1893)
Simochromis margaretae Axelrod and Harrison, 1978
Simochromis marginatus Poll, 1956
Simochromis pleurospilus Nelissen, 1978
Tropheus annectens Boulenger, 1900
Tropheus brichardi Nelissen and Thys van den Audenaerde, 1975
Tropheus duboisi Marlier, 1959
Tropheus kasabae Nelissen, 1977
Tropheus moorii Boulenger, 1898
Tropheus polli Axelrod, 1977

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not EAR
13. Coptodonini Dunz and Schliewen, 2013

Distribution: Lakes and rivers in Africa.
Number of currently valid species: 30 species belonging to 1 genus.
Brooding type: Substrate brooders.
Note: Only one species is found in Lake Tanganyika but is not endemic to the lake.

Coptodon rendalli (Boulenger, 1896)

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not EAR
14. Oreochromini Dunz and Schliewen, 2013

Distribution: West, Central, and East regions of Africa.
Number of currently valid species: Number of species is unknown. 9 or 10 genera.
Brooding type: Mouth brooders.
Note: Two species inhabit Lake Tanganyika. O. tanganicae is endemic to the lake, and O. niloticus eduardianus is distributed to Lakes Tanganyika, Kivu, Edward, George, and Albert.

Oreochromis niloticus eduardianus (Boulenger, 1912)
Oreochromis tanganicae (Günther, 1893)

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not EAR
15. Tylochromini Poll, 1986

Distribution: Mainly rivers and lakes in the Western and Central Africa.
Number of currently valid species: 19 species belonging to a genus.
Brooding type: Mouth brooders.
Note: One of the 19 species is endemic to Lake Tanganyika.

Tylochromis polylepis (Boulenger, 1900)

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